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1.Neem for Sustainable Development and Environmental Conservation :
Indian Perspective

By: Dr. Ramesh C. Saxena

The population of India has already crossed the one billion mark. Providing adequate food entitlements, safeguarding public health, meeting fuel and firewood needs, and at the same time preventing deforestation and conserving the environment, and slowing down the population growth will be daunting challenges in the coming decades. Although "green revolution technologies" have more than doubled the yield potential of cereals, especially rice and wheat in India, these high - input production systems requiring large quantities of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and machines, disregard the ecological integrity of land, forests, and water resources, endanger the flora and fauna, and cannot be sustained over generations. Future food security and economic development would depend on improving the productivity or biophysical resources through the application of sustainable production methods, by improving tolerance of crops to adverse environmental conditions, and by reducing crop and post-harvest losses caused by pests and diseases. Appropriate technologies, which do not assault the nature, would have key roles to play in ensuring food security, in improving public and animal health, and in rehabilitation the environment to safeguard the well being of the posterity. The future must look to natural ways and process for augmenting agricultural productivity. In fact, all development efforts and activities, including pest management, should be within well-defined ecological rules rather than within narrow economic gains. Sustainable agricultural systems must be efficient (i.e. effective and economically rewarding) and ecologically sound for long-term food sufficiency, equitable in providing social justice, ethical in respecting both future generations and other species, and also lead to employment and income-generating opportunities. For India, the use of neem may provide a key component in ensuring sustainable agricultural systems, including pest and nutrient management, animal health, human health, and environmental conservation.

Neem, a member of the Meliaceae family, is a botanical cousin of mahogany. According to report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, "this plant may usher in a new era in pest control, provide millions with inexpensive medicines, cut down the rate of human population growth and even reduce erosion, deforestation, and the excessive temperature of an overheated globe." Neem's other descriptions, such as "nature's gift to mankind," "the tree for many an occasion," " the tree that purifies," " the wonder tree," "the tree of the 21st century," and "a tree for solving global problems," are a recognition of its versatility. Its botanic name, Azadirachta indica, derived from Farsi, "azad darakht i hindi" literally means the "free or noble tree of India," suggesting that it is intrinsically free from pest and disease problems and is benign to the environment.

Neem is an evergreen, tall, fast-growing tree, which can reach a height of 25m and 2.5m in girth. It has an attractive crown of deepgreen foliage and masses of honey scented flowers. A full-grown tree can produce 30 to 100 kg of fruits, depending on rainfall, insolation, soil type, and ecotype.
50 kg of fruit yields 30 kg of seed, which gives 6 kg of oil and 24 kg of seed cake. Neem has more than 100 unique bio-active compounds, which have potential applications in agriculture, animal care, public health, and for even regulating human fertility.
Neem has had a long history of use primarily against household and storage pests and to some extent against crop pests in India. With the advent of broad-spectrum, toxic insecticides, such as DDT, the use of neem in crop protection declined. However, over the past two decades, neem has been come under close scientific scrutiny "as a source of unique natural products for IPM, medicine, industry, and other purposes. In spite of high selectivity, neem derivatives affect 400 to 500 species of mites and ticks, nematodes, and even noxious snails and fungi, and aflatoxin - producing Asergillus spp.
Results of large-scale field trials conducted by me and others have illustrated the value of neem-based pest management for enhancing agricultural productivity. The use of neem and fertiliser mixtures can reduce ammonia volatilization loss caused by nitrifying bacteria in soil, thus effecting saving on fertilizers. A large number of neem-based medicines, pharmaceuticals, and toiletries are being produced today and are in great demand overseas. Neem has scope in reforestation and agroforestry and rehabilitating waster and degraded lands. It is useful as windbreaks and in areas of low rainfall and high windspeed, it can protect crops from desiccation.
Neem has much to offer in solving agricultural and public health problems in the country, especially in rural areas. However, more neem trees will have to be grown to meet the increasing demand for insecticidal and industrial uses. The local peasant community will have to be brought with the fold of increased awareness by outreaching and through interpersonal interaction, by involving 'sarpanch' or village chiefs, schools, women groups, and government and non-government organizations. Field demonstrations and neem fairs at strategic locations will have to be organized periodically in collaboration with local bodies or institutions to evoke the interest and participation of target communities. Also, existing local initatives, if any, will have to be strengthened.
Strategies for creating awareness will involve hands-on training through lectures and demonstrations to trainers, comprising agricultural trainers, foresters, extension personnel, health workers, teachers, journalists, and representatives of NGOS, youth and women groups, who would then have a multiplier effect in target areas. They will have to be taught how to harvest, collect and process neem seed, grow and plant seedling, and use various neem materials for pest management. The distribution of raw materials will have to be guaranteed by establishing nodal agencies in target areas. These activities will create employment opportunities and also generate income.
The complex molecular structure of bio-active neem compounds precludes their chemical synthesis economically. Therefore, even the chemical industry will have to rely on the use of raw material. With growing demand for natural pest control materials, the use of neem products is becoming popular worldwide. In the next decade, it is expected that global neem trade, comprising neem- based pest control materials, medicines, pharmaceuticals, and toiletries will grow to more than $500m. Herein lies a huge window of opportunity to benefit by growing and harnessing neem not only for local use but also for export to regions and countries where neem does not thrive.

The neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is regarded as one of mother nature's gift to the world. In India , it is commonly found in house compounds in both villages and cities. Green twigs are used as toothbrushes to combat teeth decay. Its extracts have a powerful pesticidal activity and are used by both households and farmers to control a wide variety of pests (insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, rodents etc.). These extracts have considerable antiseptic affects and are used as a skin care agent in soaps and shampoos. The leaves are often mixed with rice and consumed as a cure all and prophylactic against bacterial and helminthic infections. Neem leaf pastes are used to repair scarred skins arising from the effects of chicken pox. Not surprisingly, many believe that the neem tree itself can ward off demons.
The pesticidal and medicinal properties of extracts from the neem tree have been exploited for at least the last 2500 years. Sanskrit texts dating back to the sixth century BC, document the microbicidal and prophylactic effects of neem extracts. Charaka in the 6th Century BC recommended the oral consumption of neem extracts to ward off pimples, leprosy and edema. Sushruta in the 5th century BC recommended the use of neem-leaf smoke for fumigation and maintenance of general hygiene. He also recommended it as a "krimihara", an agent effective against insects, grubs and maggots and detailed the ability of neem leaves to cure gangrenous and otherwise difficult to cure wounds.
The neem tree appears to be a biochemical factory producing a mixture of over 135 biologically active compounds. As a pestticide, the oil from neem seeds are believed to break the life cycle of pests and deters them from feeding and/or hatching. Studies have shown that active compounds iin the oil inhibited the secretion of hormones into the blood inhibting the moulting and reproductive function in insects.
Neem oil is known to be active on over 400 insect pests. It has for example been found to be effective against fleas, head lice, ticks, termites, plague locusts, mosquitoes and sheep blow flies. It is believed to be particularly active against chewing and sucking insects such as caterpillars and beetle larvae.
Neem extracts have also been shown to be effective against nematode pests. Neem cake, the by product from neem seed processing appears to be effective on nematodes, snails and certain fungi. The neem tree and its extracts surprisingly appear to be benign to bees and other nectar feeding insects. Seed extracts are not known to have any toxic effect on plants, mammals and birds and in fact in studies by the US EPA, no LD-50 could be established even at high doses.
These remarkable properties have attracted considerable interest from both researchers and pharmaceutical companies. This renewed interest in neem created no more than amusement in India where the beneficial properties of neem have been known for countless generations. This mood however has recently changed with Grace Horticultural Products, a unit of Grace Speciality Chemicals (USA) acquiring the patent and trademark rights to produce and sell insecticidal neem extracts. Their product, Margosan-O Concentrate, is protected under US patent No. 5124349.
In 1995, a group led by Mr. Jeremy Rifkin, president of the Foundation of Economic Trends in the US, Dr. Vandana Shiva of the Research Foundation for Science Technology and Natural Resource Policy and Professor, Nanjundaswamy of the Karnataka Rajya Ryot Sangha in India contested the decision of the US Patent and Trademark Office. They claim that the neem product has long been used as a pesticide in India and is not a new invention as claimed under the patent. They claim that Grace's patent does not satisfy the criterion that the invention must not be obvious to one of ordinary skill in the art. They assert that the Grace process only slightly differs from that used by farmers in India.
Grace on the otherhand claims that its patent relates to a formulation based on neem-seed extract. They assert their formulation overcomes the problems associated with the instability of azadirachtin, the primary active pesticidal ingredient from the plant, in traditionally used water or alcohol based emulsions. Further the awarding of patents based on the purification or modification of naturally occurring substances is not new. For example, in 1979, the US Court of Customs and Patent Appeals reversed a decision by the Patent and Trademark Office to award a patent for a compound purified from strawberries. In fact, more than 40 patents have already been award for inventions relating to a compound found in neem seeds alone.
Regardless of its outcome, the legal battle ensuing between Grace and its opponents will have significant ramifications for the natural products industry. Rifkin and partners assert that the patent and other similar patents will mean that "indigenous populations around the world, will be excluded from freely using many of the local biological resources that have been carefully developed and nurtured over hundreds of years". It has even been claimed that in a worst case scenarios that indigenous farmers would have to pay royalties to carry on their centuries-old farming practices. Unfortunately the latter argument fails to consider that no universal patent exists and as such Grace's patent is not valid in India. Indian farmers can thus choose to pay a premium for Grace's formulation or continue to produce their own.
As a result of this case, developing countries are now more concerned about the consequences of the loss in sole proprietary of a biological resource. Recently, a senior official from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research voiced his concern on the "pilfering" of traditional plant varieties from India. "The neem is ours and nobody can take it away". His claim may be a case of closing the door after the horse has bolted and is indeed somewhat curious, given that neem trees have been successfuly grown in over 17 countries. They can in fact be obtained here in Singapore.
The Indian government is in the process of formulating a Plant Varieties Protection Act which will seek to protect over 2,300 currently unprotected Indian plant varieties. Whether other countries follow India's lead will certainly have a significant influence on both research and production of natural products.
: Reproduced with permission from Dr.Mallick Rahman



I can only tell you of my experience with Neem Oil. I cannot recommend Neem oil because our government ( USA ) has not approved its use on orchids or on any plants. When I refer to Neem oil, I mean pure Neem Oil as pressed from the seeds of the Neem tree. I have never used any product with Neem oil in it. I don't know that it would be as safe as pure Neem oil.

Where does Neem oil come from? Originally it came from India. The Indian natives have been using Neem for about 3000 years as an internal remedy as well as an ingredient in tooth paste, soap, shampoo, cosmetics and skin creams.
I have never used a product in the greenhouse whose effects were as efficient and long lasting as Neem. Insecticides and fungicides that I had previously used were a short-term fix - about two weeks. And the smell was offensive and lasted for days. But it was what was available to keep a clean insect free greenhouse even if the fumes from most insecticides caused me to have allergic reactions.
Due to a long term illness, my greenhouse became a disaster area. In January, as the phalaenopsis were spiking, the mealy bugs moved in by the thousands. About 75% of the mature plants had fire ants in the pot. Scale was rampant. We had snails and slugs so big they looked dangerous. Toxic sprays did not get rid of them completely.
The first time I used Neem oil (1 oz. to 1 gallon of water + few drops of dishwashing liquid), I sprayed every plant, bench, walkway and under every bench. In a few days there was a definite improvement. I waited 2 weeks and sprayed again. I kept a close eye on the plants, no mealy bugs, scale and best of all the fire ants were gone. And no more slugs and snails.
I didn't spray again for six months. I found a snail and a slug, no other 'live stock', but I decided to spray everything again. The beauty part of using Neem oil is that you don't have to wear protective clothing or special breathing equipment and there are no sickening odors. Neem oil does have an odor, best described as 'kind of like onion soup'. However, the odor only lingers for a short time.
How does Neem get rid of insects? Most insects die shortly after spraying. Those remaining become sterile and do not reproduce. I've heard a story of 2 desert locusts, 2 grape leaves and 2 bell jars. One grape leaf was sprayed with an insecticide, the other with Neem. One locust and one grape leaf were put under each bell jar. The locust ate the toxic leaf and died. The other locust refused to eat the Neem sprayed leaf and starved to death. From my experience the story could be true. I believe it is better if you can prevent the insect from eating the plant, than to let them eat the plant and then die. It takes years to lose the damaged leaves on most orchids. Flowers can be ruined before the critters will die from insecticide. I've not been disappointed with Neem Oil. I'm sure that many who read this will be sceptical because of the 'do everything' claim.
We have a cat that has grown up in the greenhouse. Neem hasn't bothered her at all. Panzie greets all comers and we certainly would not use anything that would hurt her. We also used Neem on my daughter's dog, a Shar-pei. The dog was biting and chewing her fur and making sores and bald spots all over her coat. The veterinarian said she had hair mites. There is a treatment for this - a series of 6 dips at $65.00 per dip and only a 50% chance of a cure. I suggested that she try using a 'Neem rinse' after bathing the dog, using a 1 oz. to 1 gallon of water. This treatment was followed for three weeks. The dog has stopped chewing herself and has grown back a full glossy coat. It is also harmless on people. A lady in our orchid society has an allergy to mosquito bites. Living in Florida she had a problem working in her garden, fishing or taking an evening stroll. She had used spray repellents but it was difficult to use and not always satisfactory. She tried Neem oil and she swears by it.
When I use Neem oil I only mix the amount I will use within four hours. Neem is very biodegradable and will start to break down quickly. If it is kept in the refrigerator at approximately 40F the shelf life is extended. As any organic oil, it will turn rancid. How soon will depend on the storage temperature.
We have used pure Neem oil on cattleya, dendrobium, phaleanopsis, oncidiums, vanilla, vanda, peristeria, etc. We have detected no damage to any of these plants.
Reproduced with permission from Mr Larry Evans


4. Tips On Using Neem Oil By Mr Larry Evans

1. Pure Neem Oil will retain its potency much longer if stored at about 40° F in a low light area such as a refrigerator.
2. Do not mix anything with Neem oil until you are ready to use it. Mix only the amount of Neem oil you will use in 4 to 6 hours.
3. A new batch of Neem oil, water and a little soap (according to the label) should be mixed each time you are going to spray.
4. The soap (dishwashing detergent) is used to help emulsify the oil. If no soap is used the Neem will not mix into solution with the water and spraying will not be effective.
5. Spray the complete plant including the top of the potting media. Spray benches, walkways and any surface over which an insect might travel.
6. A mixture of 1 oz. to 1 gallon of water should be used for spraying. A weaker solution may be used as a maintenance spray. It is impossible to gie a definite schedule for spraying, however a "close eye" will help each person to adjust a timetable to maintain clean plants. You will probably not have to spray as often with Neem as with toxic insecticides.
Reproduced with permission from Mr Larry Evans
5. Azadirachtin Complete Profile
Properties of Azadirachtin ( obtained from Seeds of Neem Tree )
Following Details Reproduced Below With Permission From Cornell University.
Azadirachtin Regulatory Status
Azadirachtin is registered in the United States as a general use pesticide with a toxicity classification of IV (relatively non-toxic). Check with specific state regulations for local restrictions which may apply. Products containing azadirachtin must bear the signal word "Caution" or "Warning" on their label (1).
The key insecticidal ingredient found in the neem tree is azadirachtin, a naturally occurring substance that belongs to an organic molecule class called tetranortriterpenoids (6). It is structurally similar to insect hormones called
"ecdysones," which control the process of metamorphosis as the insects pass from
larva to pupa to adult. Metamorphosis requires the careful synchrony of many hormones and other physiological changes to be successful, and azadirachtin seems to be an "ecdysone
blocker." It blocks the insect's production and release of these vital hormones. Insects then will not molt, thus breaking their life cycle (4, 5).
Azadirachtin may also serve as a feeding deterrent for some insects. Depending on the stage of life-cycle, insect death may not occur for several days. However, upon ingestion of minute quantities, insects become quiescent and stop feeding. Residual insecticidal activity is evident for 7 to 10 days orlonger, depending on insect and application rate (1,2).
Azadirachtin is used to control whiteflies, aphids, thrips, fungus gnats,
caterpillars, beetles, mushroom flies, mealybugs, leafminers, gypsy moths and
others on food, greenhouse crops, ornamentals and turf (2, 11).
The acute oral toxicity in rats fed technical grade azadirachtin ranged from greater than 3,540 mg/kg to greater than 5,000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested when administered
undiluted to albino rats (1, 2, 3).
The acute inhalation toxicity study in rats exposed to technical azadirachtin showed that the acute inhalation LD50 is greater than 2.41 mg/L per animal, the highest dose tested.
Although this figure is below the 5.0 mg/L limit test dose for an acute inhalation study, the reported concentration was the maximum dose possible under the test conditions. No
deaths occurred during the course of the study. Azadirachtin was given a toxicity classification of Category III (3).
A primary eye irritation study in rabbits exposed to technical azadirachtin was rated mild to moderately irritating after instillation of 0.1 gm of the undiluted material. At one hour post-instillation, the maximum eye irritation score was 15.3/110; by 24, 48,
and 72 hours the scores were 6.2/110, 0.3/110, and 0/110, respectively. It was given a toxicity category of III (3).
Primary dermal irritation in rabbits when tested at a single dose (0.5 gm) by applying it to the shaved backs of rabbits, did not cause any dermal irritation after 4 hours of exposure. The dermal score was zero for all treated rabbits at all examination times.
A toxicity category of IV, mild to slightly irritating,was assigned.
An acute dermal toxicity study of rabbits exposed to technical azadirachtin was performed. The material was applied for 24 hours at a single dose of 2.0 gm/kg to the shaved backs of the rabbits, that caused dermal irritation which resolved by day nine.
Azadirachtin was classified as a mild irritant (3). Another study reported the dermal LD50 for rabbits to be >2,000 mg/kg (1,2).
Dermal sensitization in guinea pigs found the technical end-use product to be categorized as a mild sensitizer when administered undiluted to albino guinea pigs. The test material was considered a weak dermal sensitizer to albino guinea pigs (3).
A 90-day oral toxicity study in rats fed levels of 500, 2500, and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin showed no signs of overt systemic toxicity at any dose level after 90 days of feeding. Mean body weight was significantly decreased in the 10,000 ppm males and
females at weeks 3 and 4, respectively. This persisted for the duration of the 90-day feeding period (11).
Reproductive Effects
Male antifertility activity of neem leaf extract was studied in mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs by daily oral feeding of a cold-water extract of fresh green neem leaves. The
infertility effect was seen in treated male rats as there was a 66.7% reduction in fertility after 6 weeks, 80% after 9 weeks, and 100% after 11 weeks. There was no
inhibition of spermatogenesis.
During this period there was no decrease in body weight and no other manifestation of toxicity observed. There was a marked decrease in the mortality of spermatozoa. The
infertility in rats was not associated with loss of libido or with impotence and the
animals maintained normal mating behavior. The male antifertility activity was reversible in 4 to 6 weeks. Neem extract also shows reversible male antifertility activity in mice
without inhibition of spermatogenesis. In guinea pigs and rabbits, however, it exhibited toxicity as demonstrated by 66.6% and 74.9% mortality in guinea pigs and 80 and 90% mortality in rabbits at the end of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively (9).
Teratogenic Effects
No information was found.
Mutagenic Effects
Technical azadirachtin was evaluated for the potential to cause gene mutations in the S. typhimurium strains at any dose (5, 50, 500, 5,000 micrograms/plate) with or without S-9
activation. The study was negative (3).
Carcinogenic Effects
No information was found.
Fate in Humans and Animals
No information was found.
Effects on Birds No significant effects on other wildlife were reported (8).
Effects on Aquatic Organisms
The LC50 for rainbow trout exposed to azadirachtin is 0.48 ppm (11). It may cause significant fish kill if large concentrations reach waterways. It breaks down rapidly (in 50-100 hours) in water or light, and is not likely to accumulate or cause long-term
effects (8, 11).
Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)
Azadirachtin is relatively harmless to spiders, butterflies, and insects such as bees that pollinate crops and trees, ladybugs that consume aphids, and wasps that act as parasites on various crop pests. This is because neem products must be ingested to be
effective. Thus, insects that feed on plant tissue succumb, while those that feed on nectar or other insects rarely contact significant concentrations of neem products.
Another study found that only after repeated spraying of highly concentrated neem products onto plants in flower were worker bees at all affected. Under these extreme conditions, the workers carried contaminated pollen or nectar to the hives and fed it
to the brood. Small hives then showed insect-growth-regulating effects; however,
medium-sized and large bee populations were unaffected (4).
A study of neem products and their effect on mortality, growth and reproduction of earthworms in soils was conducted. Positive effects on weight and survival were found in
soil treated with ground neem leaves and ground seed kernals under greenhouse conditions. Reproduction was slightly favored over a period of 13 weeks in a neem-enriched
substrate in rearing cages. Various neem products were incorporated in the upper 10-cm soil layer of tomato plots. None of the materials had negative side effects on seven species of earthworms (10).
No significant effects on other wildlife were reported (8).
Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater
Potential for mobility in soil is very low for the
formulated product . Accumulation in the environment is not expected (8).
Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water
A formulated product which contains the active ingredient azadirachtin is considered a water pollutant. It breaks down rapidly (in 100 hours) in water or light, and
will not cause long-term effects (8).
Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation
Azadirachtin is considered non-phytotoxic when used as directed (2).
Azadirachtin is a tetranortriterpenoid botanical insecticide of the liminoid class extracted from the neem tree Azadirachta indica. It is a yellow-green powder, with a strong garlic-sulfur odor. Hazardous combustion products include carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide (1, 2, 8, 11).

1.Farm Chemicals Handbook. 1995. Meister Publishing Co. Willoughby, OH.
2.Thomson, W.T. Agricultural Chemicals. Book I: Insecticides. 1992. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
3.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. Azadirachtin: Tolerance Exemption. Federal Register. Vol. 58, No. 30. Rules and Regulations. Wednesday, February 17, 1993.
4.National Research Council. 1992. Neem: A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
5.AgriDyne Technologies, Inc. March, 1994. Greenhouse Grower. Floritech report: Tough on pests, easy on crops--and the environment. AgriDyne Technologies, Inc.,Salt Lake City, UT.
6.Grace-Sierra Crop Protection Co. 1990. Margosan-O technical bulletin. Grace-Sierra Crop Protection Co., Milpitas, CA.
7.W. R. Grace & Co. 1991. MSDS for Margosan-O.Washington Research Center, Columbia, MD.
8.Martineau, Jess. AgriDyne Technologies, Inc.January 26, 1994. MSDS for Azatin-EC Biological Insecticide.
9.Sadre, N. L., V. Y. Deshpande, K. N. Mendulkar and D. H. Nandal. 1983. "Male antifertility activity of azadirachta indica in different species" (paper presented at
the Proceedings of the 2nd International Neem conference, Rauischholzhausen, Germany, 1983). pp. 473-482.
10.Rossner, J. and C. P. W. Zebitz. 1986. "Effect of soil treatment with neem products on earthworms(Lumbricidae)" (paper presented at the Proceedings of the 3rd
International Neem Conference, Nairobi, 1986). pp. 627-632.
11.Review by AgriDyne Technologies, Inc. May, 1995
Disclaimer: Please read the pesticide label prior to use. The information contained at this web site is not a substitute for a pesticide label. Trade names used herein are for convenience only. No endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products implied.
6. Neem Oil On Cattle Tick
A study on the effect of neem oil on the life cycle of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) by John Farries a report of a trial undertaken in a dairy herd in Thailand an addition to the current research literature on neem as a natural pesticide of interest to agricultural researchers and practitioners in the developing world
John Farries has a Scottish Diploma in Agriculture and Dairying, and over thirty years’ experience of working with livestock. He has extensive experience as a farm manager and has also worked as a research adviser in dairy and beef production including conducting breeding trials and collating data.
John worked alongside Thai agriculturalists as a VSO Dairy Husbandry Worker at Rachamangala Institute of Technology Agricultural Campus, Pitsanuloke, Thailand, from 1993-1996. His work advising on the improvement of the dairy herd, particularly
its conception rates, as well as conducting extensive trials into pasture and grass
legumes mixtures and the use of neem as a botanical pesticide.
Ticks of all stages were collected and treated with solutions of neem oil diluted in
water in concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%. These were compared with a control of water only. It was found that in the greater dilutions, the immature ticks as well as the gravid ticks laid ticks before dying. The dilution of 1.0% had the greatest mortality with least egg laying.
Eggs from treated and non-treated ticks were hatched and the resultant nymphs were also treated with dilutions of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%. Viability and hatchability was affected by the different dilutions: the dilution of 0.1% had least effect on the viability of the eggs laid and had the greatest hatchability, while the dilutions of 0.8% and 1.0% had the greatest effect, with 60-75% of the eggs non-viable.
The eggs of the treated ticks were smaller and paler in colour than those of the non-treated ticks. The time of incubation did not vary and was around 21 days. Nymphs from eggs of treated ticks were paler and had less mobility than those from eggs of untreated ticks, although heat and light stimulated allstantly by the alcohol rather than by the concentration of neem oil.
When collecting ticks from the cattle, it was found that there were smaller darker ticks in the container after collection. These were considered to be male ticks which had attached to the underside of the female ticks in the act of fertilisation. These small dark ticks were also more active, indicating that they may fertilise more than one female, the main aim of which is to engorge with blood and reproduce. In the treatment, the small dark ticks died before the female ticks.
Eight-legged ticks of immature and gravid stages were collected from cattle at the dairy at Rachamangale Institute of Technology, Pitsanuloke. These were then segregated into screwtop containers. Natural conditions such as soil and moisture were provided for some ticks. Tissue paper soaked with bovine blood was also provided. This did not prove to be effective in feeding any tick that was not gravid. Some ticks were given a dry container - no natural conditions. These were usually single ticks or pair of ticks.
Untreated ticks were watched and maintained until hatching. Fungus appears to be the main predator of untreated gravid ticks, especially were moisture has been added.
Ticks which were treated were in batches of 5-10 depending upon the number of ticks collected and available. The replication tests were carried out with greater numbers. The tests were replicated two times.
Two methods were used to treat ticks in order to to simulate
1. whether the tick was already on the animal when the animal was sprayed
2. whether the tick crawled onto the animal after spraying.
To simulate the first case, the relevant dilution was brushed onto the ticks with a brush. For the second, the ticks were put in a screwtop bottle on top of a tissue soaked with the relevant dilution of neem oil and water, and application was by sensory touch of the tick. The effects of the two methods were relatively similar.
In moist conditions, eggs from untreated ticks develop embryos in 12 days. The eggs from treated ticks are slower to develop and there is a greater incidence of eggs collapsing and drying out in dilutions of 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8%.
At hatching, nymphs from untreated ticks were distributed into screwtop bottles with tissue paper soaked in the six dilutions. There was a control bottle with water only. Numbers per bottle varied from 50-200 depending on the replication. Regular counting of live/dead nymphs took place thereafter until all nymphs were dead or had expired through loss of energy.
When nymphs hatched from the eggs of treated ticks, further diluent was added to maintain moisture content within the bottle. Live/dead counts were taken of these groups also.
Treated ticks
As the table shows, the number of immature ticks which attempt to complete their life cycle by laying eggs is similar to those in the control group for all dilutions, except when treated with 1.0% solution.

Treatment % of ticks laying eggs Mean of 3 replications
Control 25 : 30 : 43 32%
0.1% 23 : 20 : 22 22%
0.2% 22 : 35 : 27 28%
0.4% 43 : 25 : 8 25%
0.6% 50 : 22 : 33 34%
0.8% 66 : 9 : 10 28%
1.0% 0 : 10 : 10 6%
When hatching and subsequent activity is considered, there was a much greater significance between treatments.

Treatment Hatchability Mean Activity
Control dried out : 0 : 95 : 95 63% Highly active
0.1% 85 : 80 : 75 80% Highly active
0.2% 55 : 65 : 66 62% Highly active
0.4% 75 : 65 : 0 46% Slow to hatch, active
0.6% 50 : 60 : 12.5 41% Slow to hatch, active
0.8% 50 : 30 : 7.7 29% Slow to hatch, active
1.0% 0 : 0 : 40 13% 40% Hatch from 1 gravid tick,active

(Zero hatchability mens that no embryos developed from the eggs laid.)
The results of the treatments from untreated ticks were analysed for statistical variance and are summarised below.

Time (days Coefficient of variance Significant @ 1.0%
(ns = not significant)
1 18.7% 14.26
3 21.4% 12.67
6 28.9% 6.88
10 34.0% 5.11
13 45.4% 3.09 @ 5%
17 57.0% n.s.
21 70.7% n.s.
24 90.8% n.s.
27 149.0% n.s.
ns = not significant
* = significant at 5%
** = significant at 1%

Day Control 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1 means 83.10 70.87 67.17 72.33 57.40 27.03 22.93
difference - - -12.34 ns -15.93 ns -10.77 ns -25.70* -56.07* -60.17**
3 means 81.93 69.63 66.53 71.93 50.77 27.03 18.13
difference - - -12.30 ns -15.40 ns -10.00 ns -31.17** -54.90** -63.80**
6 means 70.63 67.67 62.40 67.13 43.67 25.90 16.43
difference - - -2.97 ns -8.23 ns -3.50 ns -26.97* -44.73** -54.20**
10 means 60.70 55.40 60.20 60.70 42.77 21.50 13.33
difference - - -5.30 ns -0.50 ns -0.50 ns -17.93ns -39.20** -47.37**
13 means 58.50 41.50 45.77 50.33 37.20 17.07 11.50
difference - - -17.00 ns -12.75 ns -8.17 ns -21.30 ns -41.43** -47.00**
17 means 45.10 35.07 42.10 43.90 33.73 11.67 8.40
difference - - -10.03 ns -3.00 ns -1.20 ns -11.3 ns -33.43* -36.70*

After 17 days, the differences between treatments ceased to be significant. It is considered that there were two main reasons for this. It is accepted that after 17 days the effect of the neem oil will have diminished in spite of the closed container. The other reason is that there is a great range in the natural vitality of the newly hatched nymphs. Some ticks have more energy than others and since they are selected at random for the treatments, the law of averages dictates that there would be an average number of high vitality ticks in each treatment.
To extrapolate the results into a practical situation, the recommendation to spray every 2 weeks (14 days) in order to control ticks is considered acceptable. At no stage was it the intention of the experiment to eliminate the tick, as it has been proven that a certain number of ticks are essential to control the incidence of tick fever and to maintain the natural balance.
From the results of this experiment, it is considered that a dilution of neem oil in water of 1.0% contains sufficient botanical insecticide in the form of Azadirachtin to affect the life cycle and to control the cattle tick.
It cannot be emphasised too strongly that a botanical insecticide acts in a different way to a chemical insecticide. The results are not immediate as is the case with chemicals, but there is a gradual build-up in control with no side effects at the dilutions used in this trial.
Reproduced with permission from VSO, an NPO and acknowledgements to Mr. John Farries for his study

7. Neem And Head Lice
Rachelle & Richard have wonderfully explained herein how Neem Oil played an role in eliminating their children's problem of Head Lice.
We first came across neem about 2 years ago, when we read a magazine article about this wonderful tree and all its life-enhancing properties. We did not have access to the internet then, and searched as well as we could for some neem oil, but were unable to find anybody that was selling it in this country. We accepted our defeat and put it to the back of our minds until some months later when a friend of ours announced she had a three-week holiday booked to India.
˜I wonder if you might do us a favour" we began, and told her of neem oil. She agreed and three weeks later we were proudly holding our bottle of thick brown sludge, wondering how on earth we were going to cope with the smell of rancid burnt onions that was seeping from this bottle.
Our main reason for wanting neem oil was to see how it would handle a population of head-lice that had taken residence on two children. We fought the battle of continual shampooing, conditioning, combing, and the weeping and wailing that inevitably ensued. Not to mention the incessant scratching that seemed to "catch", just like the lice themselves. We were going through a particularly bad infestation where you could see one of the children's heads literally crawling with lice, we learnt never to ask her a question where the answer was "no", because if she shook her head a deluge of lice would ceremoniously land on the floor. How on earth she lived with it we will never know, but this was by far the worst case of it we had ever seen. She was even affectionately nicknamed "Mother louse" because these little creatures seemed to just adore her! We refused to go down the route of organophosphates that are in all the proprietary shampoos for lice, as we were aware of the terrible damage these chemicals could do to the body's nervous system and so neem seemed to be the answer to our prayers, fulfilling the role of a natural, safe yet effective solution.
We had absolutely no knowledge or any source of wisdom for how to use this evil-smelling stuff and so we plastered the children's heads with it neat, combed it through, wrapped their heads in cling-film and sent them out in the garden to play for a couple of hours. They had a wonderful time chasing each other about as "aliens" with their plastic, sticky heads and little did we know that all the time Mother Nature was weaving her magic on their "uninvited guests".
After about 4 hours in total we applied shampoo onto their hair and rinsed it off, followed by another shampoo and set to work combing their hair through with a lice comb.
To this day, we are absolutely astounded by the results we witnessed. Our conservatory floor rather looked like a mini necropolis for hundreds (yes hundreds) of lice that were combed out, but they had all, every single one of them died and combed easily off the hair. The girls were free at last of their "company" and their hair was shiny and healthy looking. Whether or not we applied it in the right way, we still do not know, but we were desperate to get rid of these lice and had to resort to desperate measures.There were certainly NO side effects, which we know would not have been the case if we
had gone down the "orthodox" route.
We are still eager to learn the uses of neem oil, and have used it for a nasty skin infection that prevented the need for antibiotics, for our animals as a flea treatment and a very novel use we have found is as a deterrent for thumb sucking!
Rachelle and Richard Strauss



The author, Pushp K Jain, is a noted writer on Wildlife and also specialises in medicinal plants.

Excerpts from "India - Perspectives" July 1998

Introduction :- During my 31 years of service in India, conducting, among other things, leprosy control programmes and publichealth clinics, I was amazed to find a most versatile medicinal plant - NEEM - which proved to be invaluable. The following article
sums up many of my own experiences in using this plant / seed to bring healing to many sick people - even helping to diagnose victims of snake poisoning - and to help create a cleaner environment. During my years involved in caring for leprosy patients, while I did not find that NEEM has any effect on the leprosy bacillus, it is a really good cleansing agent for treating diseased skin and open sores. For this reason, it plays an important role in the production of soap, toothpaste, ointment and other medications.

However, while NEEM is well known and extensively used in India, the real potential of this remarkable plant is yet to be understood by the world in general.


"NEEM is one tree, the very presence of which near one's abode, is considered healthy. This large, generally evergreen tree(except in drier parts of India where it is leafless for a short period during February - March), with a broad canopy, is a common sight in most parts of India It grows wild in the Siwalik Hills in north India and in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in south India. It has mostly been cultivated in drier parts of the country from where it escaped and became wild in many localities. The British in India used it extensively as a roadside and avenue tree. It has an almost straight trunk and spreading branches, covered with dark grey, cracked bark. The compound leaves are characteristic. They arise, crowded at the end of branchlets. Leaflets are alternative and opposite, oblique or subfalcate with toothed edges and pointed tips. Tender young leaves lend the tree a charming, soothing, green and shining canopy. Flowers are small, whitish or yellowish, appearing in large numbers in drooping axes from the leaf axils. Their sweet smell attracts buzzing swarms of insects as long as the bloom lasts. The green fruit, turning yellow on ripening, is small and pulpy, with a stone containing a single seed.

Almost every part of the tree is bitter and finds medicinal use, so much so that the bitterness of the tree is proverbial and it is believed that the more bitter, the better. Neem extracts possess anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties and have been used successfully in cases of stomach worms and ulcers. The tree and root barks and young fruit possess astringent, tonic and antiperiodic properties. The bark is beneficial in malaria and cutaneous diseases. Leaves are said to be discutient and their juice to
be antithelmintic. The kernels yield a greenish yellow to brown, acrid, bitter fixed oil, known as "Margosa Oil" and also called "Nimbadi Thailam". Oil from nuts and leaves is a local stimulant, insecticide and antiseptic. Flowers are stimulant, tonic and

The bark exudes a clear, bright, amber coloured gum known as "East India Gum", which blackens with age. The gum is a stimulant, demulcent and tonic and is useful in catarrhal and other infections. Powdered bark or its fluid extract or decoction has been successfully tried in the past by numerous European and Indian doctors in cases of intermittent and other paroxysmal fevers. The above, with the addition of Coriander and and Ginger powder or bruised Cloves or Cinnamon powder is said to be superior to
Quinine. Margosa Oil can be used as a dressing for foul ulcers, as a liniment to rheumatic affections and in headaches. It is a favourite application in tetanus, leprosy, uticaria, eczema, erysipelas, scrofula and skin diseases like ringworm, scabies, pemphigus
etc.. It cures dental and gum troubles. Applications of warm oil, taken in betel leaf, provide relief in asthma. As an insecticide, it is used against lice. Oil, sniffed for a month, while keeping on a milk diet, stops greying of hair. Powdered kernels are also used for washing hair. Leaves, in the form of pulp, paste or poultice are useful antiseptic applications to pustules, indolent, glandular swellings, boils and ulcers. A paste of leaves and dry Ginger, mixed with a little rock-salt, is applied to eyes to remove inflammation, itching and pain. Powder of the leave, with that of Symplocos Racemosa, kept in a cotton pouch, is dipped in water and the extract so obtained is used as eye-drops to alleviate eye diseases. Leaves eaten daily act as a prophylactic to scorpion sting and snake poison. They are used to diagnose snake poisoning cases. A person affected by the poison, does not find the leaves bitter ".Such is the virtue of NEEM that almost all the text of Indian Systems of Medicine describe its uses" . This Gem of a Tree is yet to be fully discovered by the World at Large.

9. Neem Oil For Pear Sawflies
Neem Oil for control of Pear Sawflies also known as Slugs
Neem Oil's Anti-feedant activity has been the main focus in this article.
Neem Oil Offensive
Pear sawflies, also known as pear slugs because of the appearance of their larvae, are
pests of pears and cherries that can be of particular concern in organic production systems. Neem oil, a natural product from the Indian neem tree, is toxic to a wide variety of insects. Can neem oil be used to control pear slugs in organic orchards? PARC researchers found that neem is slightly toxic to slug larvae, but more important its
presence stops the insects from feeding. Larvae find treated cherry foliage so distasteful they don’t eat, even when nothing else is available. They would rather starve.
Neem oil is effective at very low doses, and breaks down rapidly. Carefully timed sprays of neem oil may prevent feeding by pear slug larvae, while leaving no residues on the leaves or the fruit.
Acknowledgement: Dr. Mike Smirle



by Mr. Prajapati

The Neem

Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Syn. Melia azadirachta L . ) ; Eng- Margosa tree, Neem tree; Hindi- Neem (Meliaceaae). A common roadside tree bearing small, white and sweet scented flowers. Blossoms in early April in North Indian conditions. Tree is considered a good purifier of air, due to its large leaf area. Native of Burma but grown all over India. Oilcake, obtained from seeds, is used as a fertilizer and manure. Green twigs are used as tooth brushes for cleaning teeth, and as a prophylactic for mouth and teeth complaints. Parts of the plant are used medicinally and the leaves are placed in suit cases to repel insects and to preserve woollens. An extract of leaves is used in tooth pastes and soaps Seeds yield famous margosa oil of disagreeable garlic like flavour. Oil is said to be effective in treatment of leprosy and skin diseases. Also used as a cure for manage in dogs. Leaves in poultice are used for healing of wounds. Ripe fruits are edible. Due to its bitter taste and disagreeable odour, not removed by conventional methods, neem oil has not been utilised on an industrial scale. However, a process has recently been developed to extract the bitter constituents from neem oil. Oil thus obtained has been found to be suitable for soap making and for hydrogenation. Seed oil is also used as antiseptic and for burning purposes. Stones from fruits are used as beads in rosaries and necklaces. Azadirachtin, a substance isolated from the tree, has been found to have insect repellent and insecticidal properties. Bark yields tannin. Gum exudate from the bark is used in medicines as a stimulant, and for dyeing silk. Bark is useful in fever, nausea, vomitting and skin disease. Bitter principles of neem oil are reported to have been obtained by extraction with alcohol. The main component of the oil is nimbidin which is very bitter. Nimbidin is used for making several pharmaceutical preparations including emulsions, liquors, ointments, medicinal cosmetics such as lotions, shampoos, creams, hair tonics and gargles. Timber is used for agricultural implements and furniture.

Besides above Neem products ? Neem EC and Neem UCA have also been produced as plant growth promoter and soil conditioning agent.

NEEM EC is the general- purpose botanical pesticide of choice for organic agriculture . NEEM EC is widely used in several countries around the world today either singly in Integrated Pest Management or in conjunction with synthetic pesticides. Amongst the other known botanical pesticides such as Rotenone and Pyrethrins, NEEM EC is superior due to reasons cited below. Research has shown that neem extracts can influence nearly 200 spices of insects. It is significant that some of these pests are resistant to pesticides, or are inherently difficult to control with conventional pesticides (floral thrips, diamond back moth and several leaf miners).NEEM EC belongs to the category of medium to broad spectrum pesticides. NEEM EC works by intervening at several stages of the life of an insect. It does not kill the pests instantaneously but incapacitates it in several other ways.

Mode of Action : Neem acts as a biopesticide at different levels and ways. This is very important since the farmer is used to the knock out effect of chemical pesticides. Neem does not exhibit this type of effect on pests but affects them in several other ways.

Mainly: Oviposition Deterrent Insect Growth Regulation: It is a very interesting property of neem products and unique in nature, since it works on juvenile hormone. The insect larva feeds when it grows, it sheds the old skin and again starts growing. This particular shedding of old skin is the phenomenon of ecdysis or moulting is governed by an enzyme ecdysone. When the neem components, especially Azadirachtin enter into the body of larvae, the activity of ecdysone is suppressed and the larva fails to moult, remains in the larval stage and ultimately dies. If the concentration of Azadirachtin is not sufficient, the larva manages to enter the pupal stage but dies at this stage and if the concentration is still less the adult emerging from the pupa is 100 % malformed, absolutely sterile without any capacity for reproduction.

Feeding Deterrent: The most important property of neem is feeding deterrence. When an insect larva sits on the leaf, the larva is hungry and it wants to feed on the leaf. This particular trigger of feeding is given through the maxillary glands give a trigger, peristalsis in the alimentary canal is speeded up, the larva feels hungry and its starts feeding on the surface of the leaf. When the leaf is treated with neem product, because of the presence of azadirachtin, salanin and melandriol there is an anti ? peristalitic wave in the alimentary canal and this produces something similar to vomiting sensation in the insect. Because of this sensation the insect does not feed on the neem treated surface. Its ability to swallow is also blocked.

Oviposition Deterrent: Another way in which neem reduces pests is not by allowing the female to deposits eggs. This property is known as Oviposition deterrence, and comes in very handy when the seeds in storage are coated with neem Kernel powder and neem oil. The seeds or grains obtained from the market are already infested with some insects. Even these grains could be treated with neem seed kernel extract or neem oil; after this treatment the insects will not feed on them. There will be no further damage to the already damaged grains and at the same time when the female comes to the egg laying period of its life cycle, egg laying is prevented.

Other pesticidal activity includes of need include (1) The formation of chitin (exoskeleton) is also inhibited. (2) Mating as well as sexual communication is disrupted.(3) Larvae and adults of insects are repelled. (4) Adults are sterilised. (5) larvae and adults are poisoned.

Use of neem products does not give immediate results like chemical insecticides. Some patience is required after application of neem products.

Chemistry of Ingredients of Neem
Neem plants, as do all other plants, contain several thousands of chemical constituents.Of special interest are the terpenoids are known from different parts of the neem plant. Of its biological constituents the most active and well studied compound is Azadirachtin. However, in most traditional preparations of neem as pesticide or medicine a mixture of neem chemicals are present and provide the active principles. Several different kinds of azadirachtins (A to K) have been isolated, the most abundant of which is Azadirachtin ? A. The neem terpenoids are present in all parts of the plant, in the living tissues. Recently, the site of synthesis and accumulation of the neem chemicals has been identified as secretory cells. Secretory cells are most abundant in the seed kernels. The secretory cells can be seen with iodine solution. Besides the terpenoids, neem also contains more than 20 sulphurous compounds responsible for the characteristic smell of crushed seeds and neem oil.

Toxicity: In toxicological studies carried out in the USA and Germany, different neem product were neither mutagenous nor cancerogenic, and they did not produce any skin irritations or organic alternations to mice and rates even at high concentrations. In another Canadian study, Neem was found to be harmless to Aquatic invertebrates and other non-target species.

Benefits: Neem Biopesticide (Emulsifiable Concentrate) is well suited for an ? Integrated Pest Management? (IPM) Program because of the following salient features:(1) Neem Pesticide is a natural product, absolutely non toxic, 100% biodegradable and environment mentally friend. (2) It is suited for mixing with other synthetic pesticide and in fact enhances their action. (3) None or lesser quantity of synthetic pesticides need to be used, thereby reducing the environmental load. (4) Several synthetic pesticides being single chemical compounds cause easy development of resistant species of pests. Neem consists of several compounds hence development of resistance is impossible. (5) Neem does not destroy natural predators and parasites of pests thereby allowing these natural enemies to keep a check on the pest population. (6) Neem also has systemic action and seedlings can absorb and accumulate the neem compounds to make the whole plant pest resistant. (7) Neem has a broad spectrum of action active on more than 200 spices of pests. (8) Neem is harmless to non target and beneficial organisms like pollinators, honey bees, mammals and other vertebrates.

Following are the target insects of neem:


American boll worm Heliothis armigera
Oriental armyworm Mythimna separate
Angoumis grain moth Sitorega cerealella
Pink Cotton boll worm Petinophora gossypiella
Bark eating caterpillar Indarbela quadrinotata
Pod fly Melanogromyza obtusa
Beet leaf bug Piesma quqdratum
Pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis
Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens
Pulse bruchid Callosbruchus maculates
Cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae
Red boll worm Rabila frontalis
Chafer beetle Apogonia blancharid
Red hairy caterpillar Amsacta albistriga
Citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella
Reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reinform
Confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
Rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros
Corn aphid Rhopaloispum maidis
Rice moth Corcyra cephalonica
Cotton aphid Aphis gossypii
Rice skipper Pelopidas mathias
Dessert locust Schistocera gregaria
Root knot nematode Melodidogyne incognita
Diamond black moth Plutella xylostella
Root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica
Diamond moth Plutella maculipennis
Root lesion nematode Pratylenchus genus
Gall midge Orseolis oryzae
Rust red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum
Grain borer Rhizopertha dominica
Saw toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis
Gram / pod borer caterpillar Heloithis armigera
Scale insect Saissetia nigra
Green leafhopper Nephotettix appicalis
Serpentine leafminer Liriomyza trifolli
Green peach aphid Myzus persicae
Shoot/ fruit borer Earias vittela
Groundnut leafminer Stomopteryx nertaria
Seleron persicae Spotted boll worm
(cotton boll worm ) Erias fabia, E. insulana E. vitella
Groundnut leafminer Stomopteryx netaria
Stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas
Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar
Stem fly Melanagromyza phaseoli
Hairy caterpillar Amsacta moorei
Stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus brassicae
Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium
Sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchaari
Leaf folder / roller Cnaphalocrocis medicella
Surface grasshopper Chrotogonus trachypterus
Leafminer Aproaerema modicella
Termite Microtermes species
Leafhopper Nephotettix virescenes
Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura
Lesser grain borer Rhizzopertha dominica
White backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera
Mexican bean beetle Epilachna variverstis
White fly Bemisia tabaci
Migratory locust Locusta migratoria
Mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi
Mustard saw fly Athalia lugens proxima
Mustard webworm Crocidomia binotalis


Urea is the major source of nitrogenous fertiliser used in Agriculture. It is estimated that out of the total quantity of urea applied to crops, about 50- 70% is lost in various forms, thereby reducing the availability of nitrogen to crops. There is an age old practice in India of blending neem cake with urea. Based on this principle is our Urea coating agent NEEM UCA, a concentrated easy to use formulation. When NEEM UCA IS coated on urea, it forms a fine coating and protects the loss of Nitrogen by denitrification ensuring regulated continuous availability of nitrogen for a longer period, as per the requirement of crops.

Mode of Action: When uncoated urea is applied to the soil, the urea (Amide) nitrogen is rapidly converted to ammoniacal nitrogen and subsequently to nitrite and nitrate forms. Nitrogen in these forms, besides being absorbed by plants, is also rapidly lost from the soil due to leaching, run off, volatilization and denitrification. When NEEM UCA coated urea is applied to soil, the neem triterpenes inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria resulting in delayed transformation of ammoniacal nitrogen into nitrite nitrogen. This ensures slow and continuous availability of nitrogen matching the requirements of crop plant during their life cycle.

Benefits: (1) Ready to use, economical and easy to apply. (2) Ensures slow and continuous availability of nitrogen to crops. (3) Reduces nitrogen loss from urea due to leaching and denitrification. (4) Protects crops from soil borne pests.

Method of Application: (1) Spread 50 Kg urea in the shade on a clean surface. (2) Mix evenly 250 gm NEEM UCA ensuring proper spreading on urea. (3) Rub urea NEEM UCA thoroughly by hand to get a uniform coating. For larger quantities of urea, suitable mixers can be used. (4) Allow coated urea to dry till it is free flowing and ready to use.



Cockroaches could be spreading SARS REUTERS[ TUESDAY, APRIL 08, 2003 05:45:22 PM ]

HONG KONG/SINGAPORE: Cockroaches may have carried a deadly
flu-like virus through a Hong Kong apartment block, a top health official said on Tuesday as the disease spread to one of the city's crowded new towns.

At least three more people died in Beijing from SARS than officially reported, doctors in Beijing said on Tuesday as fears spread and hospitals disclosed suspected cases not previously revealed.

Hong Kong Deputy Director of Health Leung Pak-yin told a radio programme cockroaches may have carried infected waste from sewage pipes into apartments at Amoy Gardens in densely populated Kowloon district.

If proved true, it would represent an alarming development in the swiftly spreading epidemic in Hong Kong, a city of seven million people filled with densely populated apartment blocks.

"The drainage may be the reason. It is possible that the cockroaches carried the virus (from the drainage pipes) into the homes," Leung said.

SARS raced through a block in Amoy Gardens in late March, infecting nearly 300 people and forcing residents in the building and others in the complex to flee in panic. The speed of the outbreak has baffled health officials.

At Rym Exports, we are instrumental in providing Quality Potent Neem Oil & other Herbal Oils to manufacture an 100 % effective Cockroach Repellent Solution.

Kindly contact us for Prices.